Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that typically occurs early in the first three years of life, although many highly functioning children and teens are diagnosed late, sometimes even in adulthood. It is important to remember that the diagnosis of Autism is not instrumental – there are no specific tests – but is based on the observation of behaviors. In our society, Autism is a major issue that we should take care of by everyone. Sometimes we ignore that person who is not physically fit. As a result, the person who is not perfect they feel uncomfortable in our society. According to rules by govt, “Every person has the same right in every workplace.” Before all the discussion right now, we have to know autism definition and its causes. So, please keep your eyes on our article.
Autism: what it is and what are the symptoms
Autism and autism spectrum disorders are characterized by the inability to communicate and develop social relationships. Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are a relatively heterogeneous set of developmental disorders characterized by impaired communication skills and difficulties in social interaction.
What is autism
Children with autism find it difficult to correctly process information from the outside world. For this reason, they may have learning difficulties that impair their emotional and intellectual development. Autism falls within the classification of “pervasive developmental disorders”; it is not classified as a disease, but it is a syndrome therefore a set of disorders that causes emotional isolation and the inability to relate to others. In a single word, Children with autism often have modified sensory perception and language difficulties. However, autism presents itself differently from person to person and can be very difficult to diagnose correctly.
Signs and symptoms of autism: how does it manifest itself?
The autistic syndrome is characterized by interactive and communication difficulties. Typical signs of the autistic syndrome are:
1.Laterality of the gaze: the child has difficulty in meeting and sustaining the look of the speaker;
2.Repetitive and a-finalist limb movements: movements with no apparent purpose;
- 3.Repetitiveness is the execution of some activities.
Problems appear already in early childhood, that is around the 2nd-3rd year of life; often some parents report having noticed anomalies already in the first year of life. Timely taking charge of the subject is essential. There are innovative treatments available that can help. The studies carried out so far have made it possible to highlight some early signs of the disorder, based on which it is now possible to formulate a diagnostic suspicion and hypothesize the beginning of therapeutic interventions.
An early diagnosis and a timely rehabilitation intervention, even before the disorder is expressed in its fullness, can significantly reduce its interference on children’s development, limiting the expression of symptoms. Intellectual deficit is not in itself a sign of autism since children with autism spectrum disorders may also have higher than average intelligence.
Autism cause: what is autism due to?
The causes of the autistic disorder are still largely unknown. Studies show that the disorder occurs in conjunction with several neurobiological and environmental factors. The causes of autism are still under investigation. It is believed today that a single cause cannot be identified for all the different forms of autism. There is strong evidence that autisms can be caused by various physical factors, which influence brain development. Here are the most common causes of autism:
#1 Imaging techniques: The brain of autistic people, observed with imaging techniques (functional magnetic resonance imaging) and other investigation techniques, is different from control subjects. For example lower neural connectivity was detected at the interhemispheric level to medium and long-range.
#2 Autism and epilepsy: There is also a relationship between autism and epilepsy, although many people with autism never show the changes characteristic of epilepsy in life. This is clear that the cause is not emotional deprivation or how a person was raised, although the educational aspects may later affect behavior.
#3 Research: Recent studies confirm the role of a genetic predisposition. In particular, it seems to be multiple genes that explain the vulnerability to the disorder. Likely, more genes, rather than a single gene, interacting with each other and with environmental factors are responsible for autism (Persico & Napolioni, 2013).
#4 Genetic test: To date, there are no genetic tests that can diagnose a predisposition to an autism spectrum disorder, nor are there other organic markers that can allow a diagnosis of autism.
Without these causes, there are lots of causes that are reason for autism.
How many autistic people are there in the world and in the world?
USA estimates report that there is at least one person on the autism spectrum in every hundred. The ‘Autism is more common among males and, according to current knowledge, it is present in all countries of the world. ‘Autism is not a rare condition: every year, there are more children diagnosed with Autism, compared to those with juvenile diabetes, AIDS, or cancer.
In the United States alone, there are over two million people on the autism spectrum and tens of millions worldwide. There is no definite explanation for this continued increase, although both improved diagnosis and environmental influences, still under study, are considered valid reasons.
ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS: THE HYPOTHESIS
Premise: an environmental factor is any circumstance, event or habit that can affect an individual’s life to some extent. According to the hypotheses of doctors and researchers, the environmental factors that could affect the presence of Autism are:
Premature birth. A birth is early when it takes place at least three weeks before the fortieth and final week of pregnancy. The mother’s intake of alcohol or certain medications (such as sodium valproate ) during pregnancy. The massive exposure of the mother to very polluted environments. Maternal infections, contracted by the mother during pregnancy. The advanced age of the parents at the time of conception.
Currently, the scientific evidence on this is still insufficient. This is why several experiments are underway, aiming to demonstrate the effective connection between the points above and the condition of Autism.
MALE INDIVIDUALS ARE PARTICULARLY AT RISK
As stated, autistic people are usually men . According to some statistical research, the male: female ratio with Autism is 4: 1. Hence, the male population’s tendency to suffer from Autism is 4 times higher than the female population.
MYTHS TO BE DISPUTED
At one time, there were speculations that Autism could stem from or had some connection with: Vaccination against measles, mumps, and rubella ( vaccine MMR ). Exposure to thiomersal (or thimerosal ), a preservative for vaccines, also used in the preparation of disinfectants for ophthalmological use, immunoglobulins. Over the past 10-15 years, several studies have shown no link between the two circumstances above and Autism.
Is the behavioral sphere matters?
The classic abnormal behaviors of an autistic child include:
Perform repetitive movements, such as rocking back and forth or clapping your hands.
- Use the toys in different ways than their real purposes.
- To strongly depend on certain habits, so much so that a possible upheaval of the latter represents a real drama.
- They are feeling a strong attraction or marked repulsion towards foods, depending on their color or preparation.
- The tendency to smell toys, objects, and people, for inexplicable reasons.
- Having very few interests, but manic. It is very common for autistic subjects to develop a particular attraction to certain activities or objects and devote most of their daily time.
- Demonstrate a particular sensitivity to bright lights, certain sounds, or physical contact (even when it is not painful).
- It is being in constant motion.
Abnormal behaviors should be followed if you are on research about it.
When to see the doctor?
In the opinion of doctors, parents should have their child undergo specialist checks if:
- 1.At the age of 6 months, she does not smile or denote any signs of joy / cheer.
- 2.At the age of 9 months , she makes no sounds and shows no particular facial expressions.
- 3.At the age of 12 months , he does not vocalize.
- 4.At the age of 14 months , he does not perform any return gestures, does not point, does not stretch etc.
- 5.At the age of 16 months , he doesn’t speak.
- 6.At the age of 24 months , he does not utter two-word sentences.
Treatment for the Autism
1. There is no specific cure that cures autism. However, in recent decades, doctors and neurodevelopmental disease specialists have developed supportive treatments whose goals are:
2.To minimize the problems induced by autism and maximize the abilities of patients.
3.These treatments involve many hours of therapy per week, from a pediatric neurologist, a mental illness specialist
4.A learning disorder expert, a speech therapist, and an occupational therapy expert.
Some examples of the treatment
The support treatments provided include:
The cognitive-behavioral therapy. It is a form of psychotherapy, which aims to teach the patient how to recognize and master problematic (or inactive) behaviors.
Undergoing cognitive-behavioral therapy, an autistic patient should reduce their behavioral problems (for example, limit their manias or repetitive gestures) and learn new communication skills.
The educational interventions. They consist of planned activities, the purpose of which is to improve specific skills/abilities. In the case of autism, educational interventions aim to improve communication skills, social skills, and behavior. Family therapy. It is a form of psychotherapy that affects the patient’s entire family.
- Briefly, it is based on the concept that parents, siblings, and other close relatives play a decisive role in supporting their loved ones during the therapeutic path foreseen for them.
- To get good results from a family therapy, it is good for the family to learn the disease’s characteristics and how to best help those affected.
Asperger’s Disorder – Related to autism
Asperger’s Disorder is not a much-studied disorder. It was first described in 1944 by Hans Asperger and later by Wing, who published a series of cases in 1981. This Disorder differs from autism in normal cognitive and language development but presents the same kind of social interaction impairment. Their interests are stereotyped and restricted or tied to parts of objects. There are mannerisms and stereotypes and submission to habits or rituals. Often children and adolescents with this Disorder are clumsy or have motor retardation. These are the characteristics most frequently encountered in these children, but not all need to be present for a diagnosis to be made. Children who suffer from it do not use non-verbal interactional behaviors, such as direct gaze, facial expressions, gestures, and body postures.
Being a poorly investigated disorder, prevalence data also suffers from this scarcity. A further problem is the differential diagnosis between Asperger’s Disorder and autism with good cognitive functioning, which is still unclear. The available data show in a study a prevalence of 3.6-7.1 cases per 1000 in an age group between 7 and 16 years. They do not develop relationships with peers and do not seek sharing of interests, joys, and goals.
The data show the diagnosis’s stability over time, especially about socialization and communication problems. Compared to autistic children of equal IQ, children with Asperger’s Disorder were more likely to succeed, many were working, and some were married. These people often have other comorbid disorders, such as anxiety, depression, or schizotypal personality disorder (a disorder characterized mainly by deficits in interpersonal and social relationships), which seems very difficult to distinguish from Asperger’s Disorder.
The disorder occurs at birth. There is no normal development period. However, it is quite rare for the diagnosis to be made before 2-3. The first characteristic that is noticed is the lack of sociability: children do not like being picked up, they avoid the gaze and show no interest in others. In society, it is a big issue. Sometimes we ignore that person. But we have to know the actual reason for autism. In this context, we discussed autism definition, its causes, symptoms, and treatment. If your children face this disorder, you should look for a doctor as soon as possible.
Now I would like to know from you, ” is autism a mental illness
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